Einfuhr von Amateurfunk-Bausätzen nach Deutschland

Führt man einen Amateurfunk-Bausatz nach Deutschland ein (z.B. durch Postsendung aus den USA), kann der Weg zum Zollamt fällig werden. Für Amateurfunk-Bausätze ist (A) kein Zoll, (B) kein CE Kennzeichen und nur Einfuhrumsatzsteuer notwendig. Hier fasse ich die Fakten zusammen, die mir bei der Einfuhr bisher immer geholfen haben.

(A) Kein Zoll, sondern nur Einfuhrumsatzsteuer? Amateurfunk-Bausätze fallen unter den TARIC Warencode 8517 (“[..] andere Sende- oder Empfangsgeräte für Töne, Bilder oder andere Daten, einschließlich Apparate für die Kommunikation in einem drahtgebundenen oder drahtlosen Netzwerk [..]“) (siehe auch Zollinformation von DK3RED).

(B) CE Kennzeichnung nicht notwendig? In der Richtlinie 2014/53/EU, Anhang I, Paragraph 1, (a) sind “[..] Bausätze für Funkanalgen, die von Funkamateuren zusammengebaut werden [..]” explizit von der Kennzeichnungspflicht ausgenommen.

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Verified All-Band TRX for the Yaesu FT 817 ND

The information available on the web may be misleading: the jumper enumeration is ambiguous and little information on the extended range exists.

I have summarized the information on how to enable all-band TRX on the FT 817 ND in the picture below.

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Elecraft T1 ATU in FT 817: Done.

As described in http://www.ngunn.net/cyberworld/hamradio/t1/ I have successfully integrated a T1 tuner into my FT 817. My tuner was sensitive to noise on the 9V rail – using the 12V rail from the data port and some blocking capacitors I finally got the tuner working.evernote-camera-roll-20150207-145037


Raspi As WSPR Transmitter

Recently the Raspberry Pi (Raspi) has gained much interest in the Ham Radio community. One interesting things is: the I/O pins provide access to a clock signal (GPCLK0) and it is possible to modulate this clock signal via software. This has motivated Guido Ten Dolle (PE1NZZ) to implement a WSPR transmitter and to publish the sources under GPL. Within the last days I have made some minor modifications to the WsprryPi sources, built a 30m QRP filter using the ugly method and connected everything to my doublet antenna.

Raspi as WSPR Transmitter

Immediately my 10mW have been received in 743km distance by G6HUI (WSPR Spots):

Timestamp Call MHz SNR Drift Grid Pwr Reporter RGrid km az
 2013-04-13 15:30  DG6FL  10.140199  -16  -1  JO40cb  0.01  G6HUI  IO81wl  743  286
7869km with 10mW
Timestamp Call MHz SNR Drift Grid Pwr Reporter RGrid km az
 2013-04-22 05:02  DG6FL  10.140238  -21  1  JO40cb  0.01  W4AC  EL86  7869  289

Information on how to do this yourself can be found in the WsprryPi repository.


Outdoor QRP Equipment

Hiking is fun and QRP is fun. Both can be combined using homebrew equipment 🙂

This is my current light-weight QRP equipment for hiking:

  • ATS-4 (KD1JV)
  • T1 ATU (Elecraft)
  • Antenna (Buddipole)
    • VersaTee
    • Shock-cord Whip 7 elements
    • 2x Antenna Arm 22″
    • Ground wire (~10m)
    • Coax Cable (RG174)
  • PPK Straight Key (Palm Radio)
  • 10 AA Cells (Eneloop) with PowerPoles
  • Sennheiser Earphones
  • Everything tied together using hook-and-loop-tape
Buddipole Antenna in Yosemite Park
QRP Equipment

Thoughts on Accu Cells

Recently, new technologies in Accu Cells have emerged, such as the widely known A123 LiPo cells. In particular, for outdoor qrp activities it is suggested to use these cells due to their superior capacity/weight ratio. However, these cells are more difficult to handle: charger, load balancing during loading cycle, low voltage damages, form factor and voltage of the single cells prevent usage in other common devices. Furthermore, the Ready-to-Use NiMh cells, i.e. Eneloop, have overcome the issues with excessive self-discharge.

In order to find out whether it is reasonable for me to upgrade my outdoor equipment to LiPo I made a rough order of magnitude estimation for some characteristic properties of different accu cells.

(a) Weight Efficiency := Weight / Capacity
(b) Cost Efficiency := Price / Capacity
(c) Lifetime Capacity := Lifetime * Capacity
(d) Optime = Estimated operation time of my ATS 4 based on the properties given in the user manual

The results are summarized in the table below and some more details on the calculations can be found in the PDF.

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Efficiency of Compared Batteries
Battery Voltage (V) Capacity (Ah) Cost Efficiency (€/Ah) Weight Efficiency (g/Ah) Lifetime Capacity (kAh) Optime (h)
A123 9,9 2,3 25 111 16,1 6,3
Eneloop 9,6 (8C) 2,8 9 84 3 7,7
Eneloop 12 (10C) 2,8 11 105 3 7,7
Lead Gel 12 2,2 5 491 1,1 6,0

Conclusion

From the table above I conclude, that the technical properties of the new A123 LiPo batteries are impressive, when it comes to lifetime capacity. This is probably the reason, why these cells are contained in mobile phones and laptops. The operation time and the weight efficiency are outperformed by “conventional” Ready-To-Use NiMh cells for half the price.

For my outdoor qrp activities it does not really matter, whether I can be on the air for 6 or 7 hours. As a matter of fact, weight and overall handling is of great importance for me. Eneloop NiMh cells are currently the best choice. In addition, with conventional AA cells I can also power other common devices.

Additional Data